Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Learn More About AQIS

History of quarantine
The word quarantine comes from the Italian quaranti giorni, meaning 'forty days'. When bubonic plague swept through
Europe in the 14th century, the government of Venice required ships to anchor away from the city for 40 days before
they could unload passengers or cargo. The authorities thought 40 days would be enough time for any disease to be
identified and either treated or pass through its normal course. All ships under quarantine had to fly a yellow flag.
During the voyage of the Second Fleet to Australia, infectious diseases, poor diet and unhygienic conditions caused the
deaths of a quarter of the passengers. Of the thousand convicts and crew who sailed from England, only 750 landed at
Sydney Cove, many of them helplessly ill. That journey from England to Australia took 250 days.
Today, a flight from England to Australia takes about 24 hours. Travel time from Asia and America are much less. These
shorter travelling times mean there is no longer a quarantine period on journeys to Australia.
Each year, nearly 12 million passengers pass through quarantine on arrival at Australian airports and seaports, 4 million
cargo containers are inspected and about 150 million items of international mail enter Australia. All of these arrivals
pose a risk for human health, our agricultural industries and our natural environment.

What is quarantine?
Quarantine is designed to prevent the introduction, establishment, or spread of animal, plant or human pests and
Pests and diseases could be carried into Australia by people, by animals, in animal products such as meat, in plants or
in plant products such as timber, or soil. All of these must undergo quarantine inspection and may require treatment, or
in some cases destruction.
Australia has the toughest quarantine standards in the world and is free from serious plant and animal diseases found
in other parts of the world, such as rabies and foot and mouth disease.
Quarantine controls at Australia's borders minimise the risk of exotic pests and diseases entering Australia and protects
our agriculture export industries as well as our environment, tourism industries and lifestyle.

Types of quarantine
Quarantine works in a number of different ways in Australia - border controls look after the clearance of passengers
and cargo into Australia, while animal, plant and human quarantine look at the scientific risks of particular pests and
diseases and what actions need to be taken to prevent them coming to Australia.
Border control
Border controls are carried out at all entry points into Australia, including airports, seaports, international mail centres
and air courier depots. Passenger clearance and cargo clearance are the two main types of quarantine controls at these
entry points. Quarantine officers use a range of techniques including detector dogs, x-ray machines, visual inspection,
risk assessment, surveillance and scientific support to stop exotic pests and diseases entering our country.
Animal quarantine
Animal quarantine applies to all kinds of animals from cats and dogs to insects, fish, birds and larger animals. Animals
coming into Australia must spend time at specially equipped quarantine stations to ensure that they are free of disease
before being allowed into the country.
Plant quarantine
All plants or parts of plants such as fruits, seeds, cuttings, bulbs and corms, as well as things made from wood or
bamboo, must be examined and if necessary, treated. Living plants must be kept at special plant quarantine stations
when they arrive in Australia to make sure they are not carrying pests or diseases.
Human quarantine
Quarantine officers monitor reports about the health status of passengers arriving in Australia by aircraft and shipping
vessels, to ensure that they are not suffering from diseases. A number of infectious diseases can be spread to other
people by insects, such as mosquitoes, and, if allowed to get into Australia, would be very difficult to eradicate. All
international airports in Australia have a surveillance monitoring program to ensure that insect carriers of human
disease are quickly detected and destroyed.

Constant surveillance
With close proximity to neighbouring Asian and Pacific countries, being surrounded by 36,000kms of coastline and with
people, cargo, mail and imported goods arriving every day, quarantine surveillance in Australia is more important than
ever before. The men and women who work for AQIS are on duty 24 hours a day, every day of the year.
Prohibited Items
Prohibited items are items that are forbidden by law because they pose a quarantine risk.
Food, plant material and animal products from overseas—including many common souvenirs—could introduce some of
the world's most serious pests and diseases into Australia, devastating our valuable agriculture and tourism industries
and unique environment.
All food, plant material and animal products must be declared for inspection on arrival in Australia. These items may
undergo X-ray, detector dog or personal inspection. Live plants and animals must be isolated at special quarantine
stations so that any pest or disease can be isolated and prevented from spreading.
The below link provides details on items that cannot be brought into Australia and what items that are to be declared.
http://www.daff.gov.au/ data/assets/pdf file/0014/114242Zwhatcanti_take.pdf

Exotics Pests
Here are three pests that can be found stowing on or in cargo containers, and that we definitely don't want getting into Australia.
1. Khapra beetle
Not quite serial killer, but nearly as bad ... khapra beetles devour stored grains and cereals. From their native home in India the beetles have spread - mostly through shipping and trade - to southern Asia, the Middle East and north Africa. Australia exports billions of dollars worth of grain and plant products each year to more than 50 different countries, and our trade partners will refuse grain that contains pests like the khapra beetle. So this pest is one we definitely don't want.

2. Giant African snail
The giant African snail can grow to over 30cm in length, eat over 500 different species of plants and can lay more than
a thousand eggs each year! AQIS finds over 30 of these slimy hitchhikers on cargo every year, but fortunately not one
has made our country their new home.

3. Asian lonahorn beetle
If Australia didn't have quarantine inspections and treatments for incoming cargo, the Asian longhorn beetle would almost certainly get into the country on wooden pallets used for packing. This pest bores holes in timber, and if it got in it could attack our trees. Since this pest got into the United States, authorities there have had to kill thousands of parkland and street trees, and create special quarantine zones, to keep it under control.

Cargo Containers
AQIS deals with containers and the materials they are constructed from as a potential means of introducing serious pests and diseases to Australia. Timber insects pose a significant quarantine risk to Australia, and accordingly all timber in FCL containers, including exposed timber components, must be treated before the container can be considered for immediate release.
Quarantine is also concerned with the external and internal cleanliness of containers. As containers age and usage becomes even more widespread, the risks for quarantine are expected to multiply, and the need for quarantine vigilance will increase.
• Determine if you need an Import Permit before shipping goods to Australia.
• Provide AQIS with a packing declaration to facilitate clearance of containers. The packing declaration should provide details of container cleanliness and whether straw and timber have been used as packing materials. If you don't provide this information the container will have to be opened and inspected at a Quarantine approved premises.
• If a container has to be directed to a Quarantine approved premises for unpacking and inspection, delays will occur and costs will be involved.
• Ensure your container is free of contamination by soil, grain, snails or plant and animal material. The inside and outside of the container should be cleaned before shipment to help facilitate clearance on arrival in Australia. A cleanliness declaration is required for all containerised cargo imported into Australia. All contaminated containers and cargo detected entering Australia are treated before release.
• Have all timber used as packaging in the container treated by an AQIS approved method. If timber dunnage has been used in the loading of the containerised cargo, accredited persons must have a valid treatment certificate to satisfy AQIS clearance requirements. Timber must also be free of bark.
• Offshore treatments may facilitate faster clearance of the packing component of the cargo container.
However, an AQIS approved treatment provider must perform the treatment.
• Use acceptable alternative packing materials such as synthetic foam, plastics, metal frames, inflated dunnage, woodwool, shredded paper, and other similar materials.
• Be aware that serious pests and diseases exotic to Australia could be introduced into Australia on containers, cargo and packing. Thorough inspections for these pests and diseases are carried out on consignments from high risk countries.
• Don't use straw packing. It's prohibited. Straw could carry insects and diseases exotic to Australia. Containers in which straw, rice hulls or similar plant materials have been used as packing has to be unpacked at a Quarantine approved premises and the straw removed for treatment or destruction at the importer's expense.
• Don't pack your goods in fruit, vegetable, meat or egg cartons or second-hand bags. These pose a high risk because they could carry pests and diseases. These types of cartons and bags will be removed and destroyed under quarantine supervision.
• Don't use timber with bark attached. Bark is prohibited and needs to be removed and destroyed.
Some of the most commonly imported goods that must be inspected are:
• agricultural machinery
• motor vehicles
• bamboo and straw articles
• nuts and seeds
• canned meats
• rice
• cheese
• scrap metal
• foodstuffs, coffee beans
• skins fruit - dried or fresh
• herbs and spices
• stock foods - plant and animal
• household and personal effects
• matting - straw and seagrass
• vegetables - dried and fresh
• mining equipment
Cargo subject to quarantine inspection includes:
• Unprocessed agricultural produce
• Timber including articles made of timber or that have timber included in the manufacture, such as footwear
with wooden heels or wedges
• Articles of straw
• Goods likely to be contaminated - especially with soil and animal and plant material, such as vehicles and

AQIS Glossary of Terms
Note. These definitions do not cover all of the meanings of each word.
A small plant-sucking insect.
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Microscopic organisms which can cause disease in plants and animals. They are responsible for the decay of organic
matter. They multiply by simply dividing.
Biological control
The use of natural enemies of a pest or disease to control its spread.
1. In quarantine this term often refers to an organism, or some other object such as a vehicle, that is able to transport
a pest or disease over some distance.
2. Animals that have a disease, show no signs of it, and yet they can spread it to other animals.
Cereal plant
A plant that has a grain, such as wheat, barley, oats, rice and maize.
The green colouring of leaves and plants. When sunlight acts on chlorophyll it starts a number of chemical reactions
that give energy to plants.
Usually in quarantine, contamination means that something is carrying a pest or a disease.
Usually aquatic animals such as yabbies, lobsters, prawns and crabs.
A bag with a thin skin containing soft material such as fluid or a parasite.
An abnormality of the body or part of the body. This term can be used for both plants and animals.
To destroy germs.
A chemical which destroys germs.
An inactive state. Some organisms have a dormant state which allows them to survive for long periods without the use
of much energy.
The study of the relationships between life forms and their environment.
Relating to horses.
Something that is foreign to a country.
For quarantine, it is to treat something with gases to get rid of pests.
Simply organised plants composed of thread-like filaments made up of small cells. Fungi reproduce by forming spores.
Something that kills fungi.
Hard round growths caused by insects, fungi or bacteria. Galls grow on plants.
To begin plant growth or development.
When something harbours an organism, it conceals or carries it.
A living organism on which another plant or animal lives at the expense of host.
A native organism, not exotic.
The presence of microorganisms.
Something that is able to cause or spread a disease caused by microorganisms.
The presence of pests and diseases.
A chemical that kills insects.
When used to refer to plants or animals, this term means the plant or animal is not native to a country.
The spread of something that is likely to cause problems or be harmful.
A stage in the growth of an insect.
Wound or a sore or abnormal tissue due to disease.
A very small life form. Bacteria, viruses and some fungi are examples.
A plant disease caused by a fungus. Usually it results in a coating over the plant.
A small animal, related to spiders. Mites can destroy plants as they use them as a food source.
A group of organisms that include snails, shellfish, squids and octopuses.
Fungi, or the growths that are produced by fungi.
When used for a plant or animal, it refers to one which normally inhabits a country, and has not been introduced to
that country.
Refers to a part of an organism that has died.
Roundworms that often live in animals and plants.
An animal, plant or disease which is declared harmful by law and which must be eradicated.
A stage of growth of an insect.
Something which lives or has lived, such as a plant or animal.
A plant or animal which attaches to, in or on another and lives off it.
A microorganism that causes a disease.
Someone who studies diseases.
Anything causing damage or destruction.
A vegetable organism. In quarantine, plants include all plants, parts of plants whether living or dead, including stems,
branches, tubers, bulbs, corms, stocks, budwood, cuttings, suckers, roots, leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds and seedlings.
Plant pest
Any plant or animal organism (such as insect, nematode, snail, fungus, bacterium, virus and weed) that can harm a
Plant product
Any part of a plant. Timber is an example of a plant part.
Point of entry
A seaport, post office, mail exchange or airport where goods are imported.
An organism that attacks and destroys another.

Prions are very small microorganisms, even smaller than viruses, and are too small to be seen by a microscope.
Prohibited material
Any goods including plants, pests, soil, animals, animal pests, animal products which are described as prohibited by the
Quarantine Act.
Quarantine protection aims to keep unwanted exotic pests and diseases out of Australia.
A microscopic organism that consists of a single cell.
A stage of growth of an insect.
The period of isolation (originally 40 days) for plants, plant products, soil, insects, animals and animal products,
suspected of being diseased or carrying a pest.
Quarantine station
A place where plants, soil and animals are kept for inspection and treatment (or where necessary destroyed) after
having been imported or before being exported.
In regard to animals and plants, this is usually the area over which they are found.
Rural industries
Usually farm-based industries carried out in country areas and include growing crops and animals.
In biology a rust is a plant disease caused by a fungus.
An object produced by an organism, and that under the right conditions can develop into that organism. Fungi and
ferns produce spores, for example.
A particular type of an organism that has features which make it different from other organisms of the same species.
A watch that is kept. For example, quarantine surveillance of airports is a watch kept on passengers and cargo coming
into the country.
In quarantine terms, this is a plant or animal that is capable of being affected by a disease organism, or that is likely to
be attacked by a pest.
A sign that a disease is present.
Very small insects with long wings. They can be very destructive to plants.
A small eight-legged animal that sucks blood from animal by sticking a sharp probe under the skin.
Any part of an organism.
A poisonous chemical that is produced by an organism and which can cause a disease.
To treat an animal so that they do not get a disease. Usually this is done with a modified form of the organism (such as
a virus) which causes the disease.
A poisonous fluid produced by some animals.
A virus is a very simple organism, smaller than bacteria, that lives and multiplies in other plants and animals and is
capable of causing a disease.
The growing of grape vines.
X-ray machine
Scientific equipment used for the detection of plants, plant products, animals and animal products inside packaging.
This equipment is used in airports, mail exchanges and courier depots.

If you have questions regarding the Quarantine, or any other of our services, please do not hesitate to contact our National Sales Team:

Melissa Sharp      M: 0421 759 107 or  13000LOCHM
John Scodellaro   M: 0413 151 966 or 13000LOCHM
Stevan Stojanovic M: 0412 368 071 or 13000LOCHM

"All business undertaken is subject to Company's Standard Trading Conditions, which may limit or exclude the Company's liability and contain indemnities benefiting the
Company, copies of which are available upon request or checkout http://www.lochm.com.au/logistics-freight-forwarder/resources.aspx."


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